What is a primary market?As said, it’s the primary market where securities are created and it’s in this market that companies float new stocks and bonds for the public. Securities in the primary market are issued by public limited companies or government agencies and the resources are mobilised either through public issue or private placement route.
Anybody can subscribe in case of a public issue. On the other hand, if an issue is made to only a few selected groups of people, it’s called a private placement. An Initial Public Offering or IPO, when a company offers stocks for the first time takes place in the primary market.
The company bringing the IPO is known as the issuer and the process involves many merchant bankers and underwriters who sell the stocks, bonds and debentures to investors. These bankers and underwriters need to be registered with capital regulator SEBI.
What is a secondary market?Secondary market, another important segment of the share market, is where existing shares, commercial bonds, treasury bills, etc., are traded among investors. This market operates in two mediums:
- Over the counter (OTC) market: Trading is done directly between two parties, without the involvement of an exchange.
- Exchange-traded market: Here, trading is done on the infrastructure provided by the stock exchange, which follow a systematic settlement period.
Capturing the differenceThe table given below captures the differences between primary and secondary market on various aspects:
|Aspects||Primary Market||Secondary Market|
|Meaning||Place for issuing new securities||Places where new securities are traded|
|Another name||New issue market (NIM)||After market|
|Financing||Helps supplying funds to new enterprises and existing companies to raise capital||Doesn’t provide funding to companies|
|Number of times a security can be sold||Only once||Multiple times|
|Buying and selling||Takes place between companies and investors||Takes place only between investors|
|Who gains from selling of securities?||Company||Investors|
|Price of securities||Fixed||Fluctuates, depending on market forces|
Both primary and secondary markets play a crucial role in mobilising money in the country’s economy. While the primary market promotes direct interaction between company and its investor, in the secondary market broker helps investors to buy and sell stocks.
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The information contained herein is generic in nature and is meant for educational purposes only. Nothing here is to be construed as an investment or financial or taxation advice nor to be considered as an invitation or solicitation or advertisement for any financial product. Readers are advised to exercise discretion and should seek independent professional advice prior to making any investment decision in relation to any financial product. Aditya Birla Capital Group is not liable for any decision arising out of the use of this information.
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